Tales of the Loop: A Page from History

Medieval Atmosphere
the cultural landscape of Żuławy. Most contemporary towns and villages, the communication routes linking them, as well as the beginnings of the flood prevention system and the network of parishes date back to the period from the mid-13th to the mid 15th century. Settlement was governed by officials of the Teutonic Order, residing in castles-monasteries. The most impressive example of this kind of building is Malbork Castle on the Nogat – the capital of the Teutonic Order’s state and the residence of Grand Masters – the Europe’s largest medieval brick castle. There were also many smaller seats of the Teutonic Knights’ local administration, the best-preserved of which is Gniew Castle, the seat of a commander and between ten and twenty knights of the Order, making up the so called convent. Another castle of the Teutonic Knights survives in Sztum, and ruins of their stronghold may be seen in Elbląg..

Parallel to “civil” administration in the territories of the conquered Prussian tribes, the Teutonic Knights established four dioceses there, two of which – Pomesanian and Warmian – extended to areas on the Lower Vistula. The seat of the Pomesanian chapter and the cathedral of Pomesanian bishops residing in the castle in Prabuty was the castle complex in Kwidzyn. The bishops of Warmia lived in Lidzbark Warmiński Castle, and Warmian canons looked after the episcopal cathedral in Frombork. One of them was the great scholar Nicolaus Copernicus, who died in 1543 and was buried at his altar in this church.

Gdańsk Pomerania had been part of the Kuyavian Diocese from the times of Prince Boleslaus the Wrymouth. In the Middle Ages, still before the Teutonic Order subdued those territories, a few rural monasteries were established there, generously equipped by local dukes. One of them was the the Cistercian Abbey in Pelplin, which Prussian authorities dissolved at the beginning of the 19th century and whose buildings became the seat of the expanded Diocese of Culm (Chełmno). The former abbey church, now serving as the cathedral of Pelplin bishops, is one of the finest examples of Vistula Gothic. In the diocese museum we may see the only original specimen of the Gutenberg Bible in Poland.
 
It should be mentioned that it was in Żuławy that the Blessed Dorothy of Montau (Mątowy Wielkie) lived in the Middle Ages − she died in 1394 as a recluse, having voluntarily spent the final years of
her life inside the walled-in chapel of Kwidzyn Cathedral. Today, she is worshipped as the patron saint of the Elbląg Diocese.

Gothic Castles Trail
This is one of the main cultural routes in the Pomeranian Province, comprising Europe’s best-preserved Gothic fortifications. Some of the buildings making up the trail lie in Żuławy and are definitely worth seeing when visiting the area.

Items on the trail:
Gothic castles: Bytów, Gniew, Kwidzyn, Malbork, Sztum Ruins of Gothic castles: Czarne, Człuchów, Dzierzgoń, Gdańsk, Grabiny, Lębork, Osiek, Prabuty, Przezmark, Puck, Skarszewy, Sobowidz, Zamek Kiszewski. The operator of the trail is the Association of Communes “Polish Gothic Castles”.

The Mennonites – Dutch exiles
In the 16th century, when Europe was the scene of the Reformation and religious wars, Poland appeared to be an oasis of tolerance. This was appreciated by Dutch Mennonites.

Mennonitism drew on the tradition of early Christian communities, rejecting most rites and institutions of the Church and placing particular emphasis on living a modest life of hard work. These qualities were particularly useful in developing Żuławy, which is why these settlers were received here with open arms,
despite their “odd” beliefs. The Mennonites settled in areas particularly difficult to farm, the depressions in the north of the Vistula Delta and around Lake Druzno, most of which were a wasteland at that time. In exchange for a high rent, they were exempt e.g. from working for the landowner, which made them free
men. Their skills in draining and reclaiming fertile but marshy areas were highly regarded, and the effects of their hard work were useful to generations of Żuławy settlers.żuławskich.

After the first partition of Poland in 1772, when Żuławy came under Prussian rule, the times of Polish tolerance ended. The Mennonites were forced to do military service, which ran contrary to their pacifism. As a result, from late 18th century many orthodox Mennonites emigrated to Russia, from which they were later driven out to the United States by Stalinist repression. Those who stayed in Żuławy were gradually Germanised and shared the fate of the displaced after 1945.

On The Mennonites Trail
This hiking and cycling route links places connected with the history of settlement in Żuławy, including Mennonite settlement. Route: Gdańsk – Krępiec – Mokry Dwór – Wiślina – Ledowo – Wróblewo – Wocławy – Miłocin – Trutnowy – Cedry Wielkie – Leszkowy – Kiezmark – Drewnica – Mikoszewo – Jantar – Rybina – Tujsk – Cyganek – Nowy Dwór Gdański – Lubieszewo – Ostaszewo – Gniazdowo – Nowa Cerkiew – Palczewo – Boręty – Lichnowy – Nowy Staw – Tralewo – Stogi – Malbork – Stare Pole – Kławki – Szaleniec – Rozgard – Różany – Zwierzno – Markusy – Jezioro – Tropy Elbląskie – Raczki Elbląskie – Elbląg.

Monuments unconnected with the Mennonites:

- Gothic churches and their ruins;
- arcaded houses– typical examples of the residential architecture of Żuławy; żuławskiego,
- hydrotechnical monuments: the Przekop Wisły Canal, intermediate steam pumping station in Różany;
- drawbridges in Rybina, Nowy Dwór Gdański, and Jezioro;
- the Żuławy Museum in Nowy Dwór Gdański and its branch in Cyganek;
- water linear villages in Tujsk and Tropy Elbląskie – examples of a unique village layout;
- cities and towns: Gdańsk, Nowy Dwór Gdański, Nowy Staw, Malbork, Elbląg.

INTRODUCTION

1

Part One. Discovering the Żuławy Loop

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Tales of the Loop: A Page from History

3

Harmony: The Key to Reading the Landscapes of Żuławy

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Architecture: The Land of Arcaded Houses and Hydrotechnical Monuments

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Part Two. The Sailing Routes of the Żuławy Loop: Sailing and Sightseeing

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The Vistula

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The Martwa Wisła, the Śmiała Wisła, the Motława Gdańska

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The Szkarpawa

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The Wisła Królewiecka

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The Elbląg River and the Jagielloński Canal

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The Nogat

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The Wielka Święta–Tuga

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The Vistula Lagoon

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Pasłęka River and the Canal of Pasłęka

29

The Kaliningrad Lagoon

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Part III. The ABC of Sailing: Before You Sail on the Żuławy Loop

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Proposed Trip Routes

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II. The Little Loop of Żuławy

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III. To the Capital of the Vistula Żuławy

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IV. From Gdańsk to the Vistula Lagoon

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V. Down the Vistula to Gdańsk

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VI. Around the Vistula Lagoon

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Informator

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Captain’s Tips

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signs shipping

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signs shipping

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Część IV. Nautical Base of the Żuławy Loop. Ports and marinas.

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Mooring Platforms in Tczew

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The passenger and yacht harbour in Tczew

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The fishing port in Świbno

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The fishing harbour in Mikoszewo

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Marina in Błotnik

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Harbour „Tęcza”

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River side hostel in Wiślinka

50a

Maritime Yacht Club “Neptun”

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Marina Delphia Yachts - Górki Zachodnie

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Gdańsk Shipyard Yacht Club

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Joseph Conrad Yacht Club

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Academic Maritime Club in Gdańsk

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AZS Cosa - Academic Sports Association in Gdańsk

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The National Sailing Centre of the University School of Physical Education and Sport

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Gdańsk Maritime Club Yachting Harbour

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Marina on „Tamka” Street

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Yachting Harbour “Stewa”

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Northern Yacht Club Harbour

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WOPR Gdańsk Harbour

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Marina Gdańsk

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Kayak and Motorboat Harbour “Żabi Kruk”

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Marina Sienna Grobla II

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Polish Maritime Club Harbour (Wisłoujście)

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Mooring piers in Drewnica

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Harbour in Żuławki

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Mooring piers in Rybina

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Yacht harbor in Rybina

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Yacht harbor in Osłonka

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Houseboat Harbour in Rybina

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Marina Baltica in Sztutowo

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Yacht harbor in Sztutowo

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Yacht Wharf by the Zygmunt August Boulevard in Elbląg

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Yacht harbor Fala

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The marina of Scout Water Centre “Bryza”

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Yacht Club Elbląg

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Yacht harbor in Biała Góra

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The harbour of the Sports and Leisure Centre in Malbork.

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Castle Harbour in Malbork

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“Park Północny” harbour in Malbork

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The harbour in Kamienica Elbląska

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The harbour in Nadbrzeże

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The harbour in Suchacz

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The harbour in Kadyny

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The harbour in Tolkmicko

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The port in Frombork

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The port in Piaski

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The yacht port in Krynica Morska

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The fishing port in Krynica Morska

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The port of Kąty Rybackie

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Yacht harbor in Kąty Rybackie

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Sailing harbour “Neptun” in Kąty Rybackie

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The port of Nowa Pasłęka

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“Dom Rybaka” harbour in Stara Pasłęka

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Stara Pasłęka harbour

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Yacht harbor in Braniewo

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Explanation of the symbols of services available on harbours and their surroundings (1.5 km).

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Water nodes of the Żuławy Loop.

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Gdańsk Water Tram

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Legend

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